Bible Study, Commentary

Jeremiah 22 – Solitary Man

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Jeremiah 22

Solitary Man


(Please refer to the Preface and Introduction sections found in the Jeremiah Chapter 1 commentary for some general information about this chapter by chapter study of Jeremiah).

Jer 22:1 Thus saith the LORD; Go down to the house of the king of Judah, and speak there this word,
Jer 22:2 And say, Hear the word of the LORD, O king of Judah, that sittest upon the throne of David, thou, and thy servants, and thy people that enter in by these gates:

Now begins sections of the book that really jump around chronologically.

The previous chapter was a specific word delivered to Zedekiah (597-586 BC), the last king before the destruction of Jerusalem. Jeremiah here is instructed to go see the king, and deliver a word. He then proceeds to recount specific prophecies given to the 3 previous kings. While each prophecy was given to each king at the time they reigned, there is a question as to which king God is referring to here in verse one. Is it Zedekiah? A good case can be made for it, since at the beginning of the previous chapter, Zedekiah had sent emissaries to Jeremiah to inquire of the word of the Lord. This may simply be a continuation of the response. Jeremiah would review all previous prophecies given to his predecessors. If we think it’s one of the previous kings that God has sent him to, then it would only make sense if these were a collection of words to the three previous kings, strung together one after another. So, we would see each of the three sections in this chapter addressed to 3 consecutive kings.

In any event, whether or not they were all read at one time to Zedekiah, or simply a written collection of 3 words given over several years, is of little import. Here are the kings of Jeremiah’s era, with all alternate names of each king included (all dates are BC).

Josiah – 639 – 608
Jehoahaz (Shallum) – 608
Jehoiakim (Eliakim) – 608 – 597
Jehoiachin (Jeconiah, Coniah) – 597
Zedekiah – 597 – 586

So many kings in such a little time with so many names. Very easy to become completely confused. Please refer to the above list to keep all these names clear in your mind.

The 3 prophecies are as follows:

1. To Shallum – verses 1-12
2. To Jehoiakim – verses 13-19
3. To Coniah – verses 20-30

Jer 22:3 Thus saith the LORD; Execute ye judgment and righteousness, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor: and do no wrong, do no violence to the stranger, the fatherless, nor the widow, neither shed innocent blood in this place.
Jer 22:4 For if ye do this thing indeed, then shall there enter in by the gates of this house kings sitting upon the throne of David, riding in chariots and on horses, he, and his servants, and his people.

Just by examining the contents of these prophecies, we could make an intelligent guess as to roughly which time period, and therefore, which king, this word was given to. Since this word promised salvation and preservation, this would be well before Babylon invaded, and there was still time to repent and be saved. A casual reading of Jeremiah will leave the reader unsure of exactly what God is and is not promising. Sometimes he promises to save them. Other times he states destruction is final and cannot be changed. Which is it?

The answer only comes by careful study. We must always be aware that this book is not a sequential historical recounting. It is not in chronological order. We will jump backward and forward in time in several places. Baruch is later listed as Jeremiah’s scribe. He had to write these prophecies at least 3 separate times. I am sure he never did all the words in one sitting. Because of persecution and calamity, these scrolls had to be hidden, moved around, and updated as new words were spoken. Perhaps portions were saved and others lost. So the final version was never recompiled into a chronological account.

Yet I am sure God had his reasons for preserving this text in the order that it is found in today. Perhaps one can discern a topical grouping. Perhaps certain sections are to forcibly pound home the stark judgments of an angry God, whereas other potions concentrate on the price Jeremiah had to pay to deliver the truth to his people. Then there are sections where prophetic words to other nations are found. There are portions that simply recount the historical events at the time of Jerusalem’s fall.

Verse 11 tells us this word was for Shallum, or Jehoahaz. 1 Chr 3:15 tells us Shallum was the 4th son of Josiah, chosen by the people (2 Chr 36:1:4). He lasted three months before Pharaoh deposed him and placed Eliakim his brother as king. Pharaoh then changed his name to Jehoiakim.

Scholars will spend most of their time debating the finer points of names and dates, and depending on their reverence for, or lack thereof, of holy scripture, will either try to reconcile the apparent contradictions, or trumpet them. I try to reconcile the contradictions wherever I can, not only to help the reader answer critics, but for your own edification and comfort, as we should all have an unshakable confidence in the absolute inerrancy of the word of God. No one needs seeds of doubt planted by the devil because some godless, unbelieving theologian is being used by satan to destroy the faith of the children of the king. You may rest assured that anyone who tries to convince you of problems in the text, is either ignorant, lazy, or just plain evil, whether they realize it or not.

God rewards the diligent. If something isn’t clear or you are confused, do not despair. Keep seeking the Lord, and you shall eventually find what you’re looking for.

Jer 22:5 But if ye will not hear these words, I swear by myself, saith the LORD, that this house shall become a desolation.

God cannot make a more solemn vow. There is no one higher to swear by than God himself. He is not like most parents, threatening their children, but never following through. God means what he says and says what he means.

Jer 22:6 For thus saith the LORD unto the king’s house of Judah; Thou art Gilead unto me, and the head of Lebanon: yet surely I will make thee a wilderness (desert), and cities which are not inhabited.

The oaks of Bashan in the Gilead district (Is 2;13, Zech 11:2) were as famous as the cedars of Lebanon. God is saying that Judah was created and meant to be as glorious a showcase of God’s kingdom as the finest trees were Gilead’s and Lebanon’s. Yet because of your evil choices, all that does not matter. You will become the opposite – desolate and uninhabited. A showcase of wrath.

Jer 22:7 And I will prepare (causatively make, appoint, consecrate) destroyers against thee, every one with his weapons: and they shall cut down (kar-ath – as in the cutting of a covenant, to destroy or consume) thy choice (best) cedars, and cast (naphal – cast down, fall away) them into the fire.

Just as God consecrates his own servants for a holy task, so in the same manner God can consecrate the wicked as an instrument of judgment. We need to understand that certain terms can be used in more than one narrow meaning that we’ve always been taught. A careful reading of the book of Daniel teaches us how God worked very closely in the life of Nebuchadnezzar to accomplish his purposes not only upon the children of Judah, but to proclaim his reality to all the nations of the earth at that time. Look at how he uses the same word that means to cut a covenant in a setting of judgment rather than the promise of a blessing. The idea to grasp is that God’s punishments are just as sure a thing as God’s promises of blessings. The concept of covenant is used to increase our faith in the reliability of God’s positive promises. In this verse the very same idea of covenant is used to ensure that we believe in the absolute surety of judgment for rebellion.

Note that every instrument of judgment will have their own weapons. I see a hint here of the multi faceted attack by the cabal in trying to bring the current world order down and replacing it with their own. They have not used one or two weapons, but many. We are being attacked from all sides, in ways we never imagined.

Jer 22:8 And many nations shall pass by this city, and they shall say every man to his neighbour, Wherefore hath the LORD done thus unto this great city?
Jer 22:9 Then they shall answer, Because they have forsaken the covenant of the LORD (Yehovah) their God, and worshipped other gods (elohim), and served them (became slaves to them).

The rest of the world is looking at America, and shaking their heads. Why are they throwing their wealth and freedom away? Why has God abandoned them? The answer is always the same. It’s not because we’ve lost the technological edge, or the space race, or the economic war. It’s not due to any natural reason. It’s always due to abandoning our God, and giving our hearts to other gods. These gods demand an opposite value system. They may initially simply chip away at our foundations, asking only that we relax a little here, compromise a little there. Decriminalize sodomy, that’s all. Allow abortion in extreme cases. Euthanize the terminally ill only. It always, always ends up in a freefall to the furthest reaches of the moral abyss. Do you think when we decriminalized sodomy in the 60’s that we would end up with drag queens in kindergarten and transgenders flooding our culture today?

You can never forsake God just a little, and worship other gods just a little. If you allow the devil room in your heart, he will eventually force his way in until he is occupying everything, unless you do something to stop him. This is why Jesus was so adamant and inflexible when it came to total commitment. Even 99% just won’t cut it. While God never forces his will on his subjects (though he may be very persuasive at times!), he knows the devil is no such gentleman. He will use every trick in the book to make you all his.

Jer 22:10 Weep ye not for the dead, neither bemoan (mourn) him: but weep sore (baw-kaw baw-kaw – lament lament) for him that goeth away (departs): for he shall return (shoob) no more, nor see his native country.

God does not want us to spare tears for the serious idolaters amongst us. This is not just for the pagans, but for the believers as well. Idolatry is idolatry. It does not matter if one is saved or not. God is not a respecter of persons. If anything, we all know that it’s far more dangerous for a believer to fall like this than a heathen. Not only are we far more accountable than the sinner, but the devil will take a special interest in the saint that opens themselves up like this.

The main point though, in this verse, is that because of the severity of the judgment, you should grieve more for those that will be taken into captivity than those who will be killed outright. It kind of reminds me of the verse in Corinthians where Paul prays for the destruction of the flesh of a sinning believer, so that his spirit may be saved (1 Cor 5:5). Paul knew full well where the wide road of destruction led to. He had perceived in his spirit that this particular person, if left alone, would continue to depart from the faith until he had lost his salvation. It was far better to experience an early death. Are there any saints out there mature enough to recognize and accept that in some limited cases, it is far preferable to go home early than to fall away because of our weakness? In this end time generation, I believe that this could apply to a lot more people than ever before, as so many are simply not ready to endure what is to come. God is saying that he who departs Judah, shall not return. So we are warned that he who departs the faith, will most likely not return to it, in the time of judgment. Judgment will harden far more people’s hearts than soften.

Jer 22:11 For thus saith the LORD touching Shallum the son of Josiah king of Judah, which reigned instead of Josiah his father, which went forth out of this place; He shall not return thither any more:
Jer 22:12 But he shall die in the place whither they have led him captive, and shall see this land no more.

Now we finally get to see who this prophecy was addressed to. A man who reigned three months. We find the fulfillment of this prophecy in 2 Ki 23:31-34 and 2 Chr 36:1-4.

It is fascinating, yet very mysterious, why God allowed Manasseh to reign in his wickedness for 55 years, while giving this guy only months. One could say that God knew that Manasseh would repent at the end of his life, so he waited patiently for him. However, there were many wicked kings who had long reigns that never repented. Also, it would be very cruel of God to wait that long for that one soul while he killed many thousands in cold blood during all those years of wickedness.

Instead of silly speculation, let us be content to what the scripture does reveal, and what it does not. The point is that you never know just how long you really have. It may be 55 years. It may be 3 months. It may be one hour. Are you ready to meet your king? Do you always stay ready, with your bags packed and your soul pure?

Jer 22:13 Woe unto him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness (no tseh-dek – no justice), and his chambers by wrong (no mishpat – no righteous decisions); that useth his neighbour’s service without wages (for free), and giveth him not for his work;

It’s hard to recognize that this begins another prophecy at a different time, to a different king – Jehoiakim (v18). God begins by admonishing everyone who tries to build a life without rightness, justice, correct moral verdicts or decisions. Instead of being fair with your fellow man, you’re looking to see if you can take advantage of him. Do we intentionally try to defraud our employees? Trying to justify it by saying times are hard, I’m not making enough, and they should be thankful that I’m giving them a job? Or perhaps more subtly, if someone provides a service to you, and through ignorance or shyness significantly undercharges you, would you think God has just blessed you, or would you possibly give them more, to reflect the fair value of their labor? More practically, if our friends volunteer to help us, do we take their offering for granted, or do we sincerely ask God what we can do to repay their kindness? Do we have a miserly, greedy, covetous disposition, or are we readily generous and looking to bless instead of looking to take advantage?

Jer 22:14 That saith, I will build me a wide house and large chambers, and cutteth him out windows; and it is cieled with cedar, and painted with vermilion.

Jehoiakim is rebuked for only being concerned with his own comfort, and not the things of God. He had no room in his heart for Torah, all his energies seemed to be expended on building for himself a fancy palace. No expense was too great. Who cares about the common man? Who cares that invasion is imminent? Instead of looking to the nation’s defence, he looked to his own comfort.

Jer 22:15 Shalt thou reign, because thou closest thyself in cedar? did not thy father eat and drink, and do judgment (mishpat) and justice (tsed-aw-kaw – rightness, morally virtuous behavior), and then it was well with him?

Do you think your fancy house makes you qualified to rule? That if the outside trappings are magnificent, that will cover up the moral bankruptcy within? All despots seem to want to ostentatiously display their obscene wealth. As if that is a sign of greatness. God reminds him of one of the few righteous kings that went before him – his father Josiah. He was the most zealous of all in obeying all that was revealed to him. He found the Torah and seemed to try to implement everything that he read therein. God noticed his zeal. He was a man who attempted to mimic God’s mishpat and his tsed-aw-kaw, his judgment and justice. Note god didn’t talk about his great love, or humble heart, important as those are. For a leader, justice, the rewarding of good and the punishment of evil, should be the priority. Because of classic liberal thinking, based on humanism, we have abandoned the punishment of evil, deceiving ourselves into thinking we are practising a higher form of morality, when in fact, we are practising unrighteousness, which God calls wickedness and rebellion.

God spoke of Josiah’s life in such a way that while Josiah ruled righteously, it did not prevent him from enjoying life. He still ate and drank well. Doing good does not mean that you must starve and be deprived of life’s necessary legitimate pleasures. I think many believe that if you serve God, you will miss out on so many wonderful things. You think serving God is nothing but sacrifice and self denial. While those things are certainly part of the Christian life, the blessings we do receive make any sacrifices pale in comparison.

Jer 22:16 He judged the cause of the poor and needy; then it was well with him: was not this to know me? saith the LORD.

If you look to other’s needs before your own, God will be well pleased with you, and you can count on his ultimate protection. Following the two great commandments in one’s life is the surest sign that you do truly know God. Loving him and loving your neighbor is really what life boils down to.

If you want people to see Jesus in you, then it doesn’t get any simpler than that.

Jer 22:17 But thine eyes and thine heart are not but for thy covetousness (plunder, profit, unjust gain), and for to shed innocent blood, and for oppression (injury, fraud, extortion), and for violence (oppression), to do it.

I don’t know if there is a better verse in the bible that describes the heart of the average cabal member. Think of the prime minister or the president of our two nations in North America. All they do is for filthy lucre. Our prime minister is part owner in a patent that has to do with the mrna technology. Every shot taken makes him more money. Your president has so much money laundering occurring, that probably nobody knows the extent of it. Not satisfied with obscene wealth, they look for ways to murder more and more people. Pushing the jab, even after evidence has sprung up all over the world of the untold millions it has killed. Buying off all media, paying them to keep silent while they continue to urge people to kill themselves. There is something so depraved in a heart that has given itself over to this extent of evil. Why the lust to see the innocent suffer and die? I suppose it makes them feel like gods. Just like lucifer, who I’m sure gets a kick out of every innocent death.

They are all about fraud. They revel in the fact that they have pulled off the world’s biggest scam. Getting all governments to borrow against their own citizen’s future income to grossly overpay for poison that not only kills the ones who they’ve stolen the money from. Then they pay themselves and their minions for every poison dose and death administered. All with our money! And there isn’t a single thing anyone seems to be able to do about it.

And who will forget that evil maniac’s use of martial law in 2022 to crush the unarmed truckers? To use horses to trample elderly native women with walkers? It’s all about the arbitrary use of raw power. Give a vile, worthless person unlimited power, and he will break the world.

Jer 22:18 Therefore thus saith the LORD concerning Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah; They shall not lament (tear the hair, beat the breast) for him, saying, Ah (alas, woe) my brother! or, Ah (alas, woe) sister! they shall not lament for him, saying, Ah lord! or, Ah (alas, woe) his glory (grandeur, majesty)!
Jer 22:19 He shall be buried with the burial of an ass (or buried in the burial place where asses are buried), drawn and cast forth (thrown out) beyond the gates of Jerusalem.

In this second of three proclamations of doom on Judah’s last line of kings, God finally names him (Jehoiakim). This megalomaniac, who wanted to be remembered forever, would not get his wish.
Jehoiakim was dragged in chains with the other captives, who were being carried off to Babylon (2 Chr 36:6), and probably died on the journey, his corpse most likely left behind unburied as the army marched.

A fitting end for someone who cared about nothing except himself. At the end, no one cared for him.

Jer 22:20 Go up to Lebanon, and cry; and lift up thy voice in Bashan, and cry from the passages (the opposite side): for all thy lovers are destroyed.

Again it is hard to discern that this begins the 3rd of 3 proclamations of judgments. This time it’s against Coniah (v24). This king is the most confusing in all of scripture. He is called by 2 other names in various places in the bible – Jehoiachin and Jeconiah. He only reigns 3 months (2 Ki 24:8-16, 2 Chr 36:8-10). He was known as doing only evil. He was taken away to Babylon, but after 37 years of captivity, in 560 BC, Jer 52:31-34 (the last passage of the book), speaks of mercy being shown to him by the king of Babylon, and he spent his remaining years being taken care of.

He also was given a special curse, as we shall see in this chapter. He also has some of the most difficult dating issues in the entire scripture. This is what we will unravel first.

Let us look at a couple passages:

2Ki 24:8 Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned in Jerusalem three months. And his mother’s name was Nehushta, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem.

2Ch 36:9 Jehoiachin was eight years old (literally, in the 8th year) when he began to reign, and he reigned three months and ten days in Jerusalem: and he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD.

Jer 25:1 The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the people of Judah in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, that was the first year of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon;

The first 2 scriptures seem to indicate a contradiction. I will show you how with a little research, all discrepancies disappear. Any supposed contradiction should always be chalked down to our own ignorance.

Did this king begin reigning at age 8 or 18? How do we resolve this? If you examine 2 Chr 36:9 more closely, it literally says ‘in the 8th year’. In the 8th year of what? Not the king’s life.

This is where Jer 25:1 comes in. It speaks of his father’s 4th year of reign, during first year of the Babylonian enslavement. Not the siege, but when they were under the direct rule of Babylon and the kings were their puppets. Jehoiakim reigned 7 more years, thus the 8th year of Babylon’s rule over Judah when Jehoiachin came to the throne. Thus the King James translation in this case is clearly incorrect. 2 Ch 36:9 speaks of the year of Babylonian overlordship of Judah, while 2 Ki 24:8 speaks of Jehoiachin’s actual age. Problem solved, and the key was found in Jer 25:1.

Let us look at another so called discrepancy:

2Ki 24:12 And Jehoiachin the king of Judah went out to the king of Babylon, he, and his mother, and his servants, and his princes, and his officers: and the king of Babylon took him in the eighth year of his reign.

Jer 52:28 This is the people whom Nebuchadrezzar carried away captive: in the seventh year three thousand Jews and three and twenty:

The 8th year of Nebuchadnezzar, which corresponds to the 8th year of Babylonian overlordship, would be 597 BC. Were they taken away in the 7th or the 8th year? The most likely explanation is that this particular exile (don’t forget, there were 3 separate exiles to Babylon, in 605, 597, and 586) began in Nebuchadnezzar’s 7th year, and was completed in the 8th. It was not like they could hop on a plane, or load up a bunch of busses. It would of taken some time to complete. One writer dated it from the start of the exile, the other dated it from when it ended.

Now that we have settled all that (whew!), let’s get back to the verse at hand. Go and stand on the top of these opposing mountain ranges and cry aloud. The lovers would represent Egypt, whom they made an alliance with. That has completely failed. Reminds me of nato, throwing everything they have into Ukraine, all for naught, as God is not on their side.

Jer 22:21 I spake unto thee in thy prosperity (abundance, when you were at peace); but thou saidst, I will not hear (shama). This hath been thy manner (deh-rek – your course of life, your road) from thy youth, that thou obeyedst (shama) not my voice.

No shama, no hope. Make a habit of no shama, and you will form a habit that will not be easily broken when the day of adversity comes.

Money is so often portrayed as a mechanism that causes one’s heart to harden and to fall spiritually. Believers should be much more afraid of riches than what is preached. It is a far greater danger to our souls than we realize. Only in the new testament do you find the kind of warnings that we need to hear. Who really listens to negative preaching when all is well? If most do not hear the truth in this day of calamity, what hope did the Laodicean generation have back when we were on top of the world?

Jer 22:22 The wind (ruach) shall eat up (shepherd, watch over) all thy pastors (shepherds), and thy lovers shall go into captivity: surely then shalt thou be ashamed and confounded for all thy wickedness (rah).

The idea is the wind, or the rushing in of the enemy, shall depasture the shepherds. The shepherds, or the leaders, shall be the first to be eaten up by the wind of judgment that is blowing in.

Jer 22:23 O inhabitant of Lebanon, that makest thy nest in the cedars, how gracious shalt thou be when pangs come upon thee, the pain as of a woman in travail!

This is most likely a reference to the king that lived in his fancy cedar palace. He thinks he’s in a place of comfort and safety, but he will soon change his tune. You won’t look and sound so majestic when the enemy appears. As the pangs of labor, so shall your pain come suddenly, and only increase in intensity and duration.

Jer 22:24 As I live, saith the LORD, though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were the signet upon my right hand, yet would I pluck thee thence;

We get to the verse that identifies who Jeremiah is prophesying against. This Coniah only reigned three months. This name was most likely an abbreviation of Jeconiah. Jehoiachin might of been the name he took upon ascension to the throne. It was a regal name meaning ‘Jehovah establishes’.

The signet ring was the symbol of the king’s authority and power. God is saying that even if Coniah represented such an indispensable item, God would still get rid of it, that’s how worthless and vile he had become.

Jer 22:25 And I will give thee into the hand of them that seek thy life, and into the hand of them whose face thou fearest, even into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, and into the hand of the Chaldeans.

For the faithless, what you fear will come upon thee.

Jer 22:26 And I will cast thee out, and thy mother that bare thee, into another country, where ye were not born; and there shall ye die.

Do not think that your sin affects no one else. 2 Ki 24:12 lists all the retinue that suffered the same fate that he did, including his mother. He was cast out of his inheritance, with no hope of return. Do not think that you can always go back.

Jer 22:27 But to the land whereunto they desire to return (shoob – turn back), thither shall they not return (shoob – turn back).

Note how you need to know the context to select the correct nuance of the Hebrew word. Sometimes shoob means turn away, other times it means turn back.

You may wish to shoob (turn back) all you want. Sometimes God says, no more shoobing is to be found. If you have shoobed back into your old life, please shoob to Jesus before the door is shut and no one else is allowed in.

Jer 22:28 Is this man Coniah a despised broken idol (earthen vessel)? is he a vessel wherein is no pleasure (value)? Wherefore (why) are they cast out (is he cast away), he and his seed, and are cast (thrown) into a land which they know not?

The imagery is that Coniah is like a broken pottery vessel, which the potter has broken and thrown out as worthless. This is a lament, as the reader would gaze out at this 18 year old with wonder and pity at the doom which fell on one so young.

Jer 22:29 O earth, earth, earth, hear the word of the LORD.

To repeat a command 3 times must mean something significant is coming. God is calling the eh-rets, the world itself, 3 times in a row to come and listen what he has to say.

Jer 22:30 Thus saith the LORD, Write (engrave) ye this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days: for no man of his seed shall prosper, sitting upon the throne of David, and ruling any more in Judah.

I have heard a teaching on this verse that would of seemingly put God in a bind. If he cursed Coniah with no heir, then how would Messiah come from the seed of David?

Mt 1:;12 states that Salathiel came from Jechonias, or Coniah (aka Jeconiah, aka Jehoiachin). This would of been accomplished via Levirite marraige. Dt 25:5-6 describes the process. A brother had a duty to raise up offspring of his dead brother by marrying his widow. That ensures that the family is preserved in Israel, thus preserving their inheritance.

If not for that proviso, the Messianic bloodline would of been stymied. How do we know this? Lk 3:27 says Salathiel was the son of Neri, of the line of Nathan (v31). It’s as though the line of Solomon became extinct in Jehoiachin. The only way this could of been accomplished was via Levirite marriage. Another example may be found in the lineage of Joseph, husband of Mary, and earthly father of Jesus, but that is beyond the scope of this lesson.

I know this chapter may of been challenging to complete due to the numerous technical issues that were addressed. While not the most exciting of topics, I do hope that a reasonable, logical explanation of some of these issues will help to assuage and erase any doubts about the integrity of God’s word, so that your faith will not be hindered by lies and half-truths by the ignorant and the wicked.

We all need to be able to deal with the hard issues the bible may present us with, so that our faith rests in a sure and solid foundation, and will not be shaken by any and every yahoo that comes along to try and tear us away (shoob) from the faith.

May God richly bless this study, and give all the readers a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him.

Solitary Man

Photos courtesy Depositphotos


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